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Eyes afraid? And they are right. "Evening Ufa"

3 April 2012, Tuesday 00:00 Просмотров: 764

The achievements of modern science not only help us to deal successfully with many well known diseases, but also give you the opportunity to know his "enemy" in the face, without which successful treatment is, in fact, impossible. Our interlocutor is the head of the Department vitreoretinal and laser surgery of the Ufa research Institute of eye diseases of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, candidate of medical Sciences Rinat FAIZRAKHMANOV.
- Rinat Rustamovich, I may be wrong, but it seems to me that the major eye problems in young people are associated with myopia, middle-aged people mostly worried about the growing "plus", and for the elderly the main "horror stories" - glaucoma and cataracts...
- In General, Yes, it probably is, only to the last two diseases should be added and AMD - age-related macular degeneration (degeneration) of the retina.
- To be honest, sounds a bit scary...
But the disease itself is quite serious. And not at the hearing because it was diagnosed only in recent decades - simply did not exist before the relevant equipment. Today to image the histological structure of the retina helps optic coherence tomography. This precision equipment available in our Institute. Such a device renders all the pathological processes occurring at the micro level, which allows time to begin therapy. In our Institute there are two device last modification: Japanese and German.
- As already in the name of the disease includes the word "age", it is, as I understand it that determines?
- Yes, macular degeneration makes itself felt usually after 50-55 years. However, now AMD are getting younger and younger (as well as most illnesses in General), so that cases are found and forty-five.
- Dystrophy, degeneration, apparently, is a phenomenon associated with impaired nutrition of the cells. And what is "macular"?
- Macular - from the word "macula"
(spot). The process is localized in the Central part of the retina - the macula.
- What happens at AMD?
- If briefly - starts the pathological changes of the Central section of the retina responsible for visual acuity. In wet form of AMD is the sprouting of blood vessels through the retinal pigment epithelium. The result is edema and reduced visual acuity. Appears photopsia (flash), distortedimages of objects, straight lines begin to look wavy... dry AMD is atrophy of the neurosensory layer, resulting in also reduced visual function. The symptoms are largely similar.
- And then these forms to recognize?
- Only using a special scanner, as I have said, in wet form of the disease will see the swelling and neovascular membrane in the dry form - areas of atrophy, manifested by dilution of cell layers.
- Rinat Rustamovich, hence, the treatment should be different?
- Of course. In the dry form of AMD, it is conservative - in fact, the vitamin therapy, when wet can not do without the drugs (this is the development of the XXI century), blocking the growth of new vessels. Injections are made directly into the vitreous body; the main purpose of this therapy is to stop
the pathological process. Drugs in this group inhibit the growth of newly formed vessels, thus prevent the progression of the disease, and in some cases and significantly improve visual function. Both forms should simultaneously start the treatment from the appropriate specialist (therapist, cardiologist, endocrinologist) - profile of existing comorbidities.
- Let's talk more about the risk factors...
- Let's start with hypoxia (remember, it's a condition of oxygen starvation of the organism as a whole or its individual organs and tissues): bad service can do a of the disease, indicating problems with the vascular system: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes.
Factor number two - high insolation (exposure to direct sunlight).
Factor number three - bad habits (excessive alcohol consumption, Smoking).
Of course, can affect an unbalanced diet (excessive content of dietary cholesterol, low consumption of vegetables and grains, lack of magnesium, selenium, zinc, total vitamin deficiency), resulting in excess body weight. And, perhaps, genetics. If parents had problems with vision (even at the time, "unidentified"), it should cause concern.
- How about visual overload?
- Here they are-the development of this disease just isn't affected, although there is nothing good to expect from them, of course, still not worth it! And with AMD on such overload has to say is meaningless, because just having difficultyreading, writing, computer work, watching television. Peripheral vision is not changed, due to which the patient freely oriented in space and cope with everyday household tasks.
- Still, a nice little... Rinat Rustamovich, let's once again go over income, which can be precursors of AMD.
Is flash, which seems to change the shape of objects, violations of color vision and reduced Central vision, that is, its severity (when you can't "focus" and objects appear blurred). Please note that any pain a person is not experiencing. Even unpleasant phenomenon is generally a one-time or temporary, they should still be alerted.
In any case, after forty-five years (and preferably after forty) it is necessary time in half a year is sure to be examined by an ophthalmologist at the place of residence, even if, at first glance, the reasons for concern. The earlier AMD is detected, the more chance to stop further decrease in visual acuity.
- It turns out, AMD was still not a sentence?
In any case, total blindness it today does not. Just must undergo a appropriate treatment. Our Institute
observed many patients with this diagnosis in respect of which it is possible to obtain a stable clinical effect.
- Surely this is a huge stress - learn about the diagnosis of "age-related macular degeneration"...
- Of course, the anxiety of the patient concerning quality of life and fear of the future is clear. But the fact is that the feeling of fear sometimes leads to a deterioration of General health! Therefore, the patient must get as
more positive emotions, and this can help him close. Normalization of the psychological climate in the family, breathing exercises and fresh air, delicious healthy food - all very important things. And printed publications, without which you never imagined your life, you can, in the end, to be replaced with audio books and radio broadcasts.
- Rinat Rustamovich, as well as to insure that with AMD not to meet - at any age?
- If you remember the above risk factors, to draw the correct conclusions easily. You need to lead a healthy lifestyle, balanced diet, give up badhabits and move more. Be sure
protect your eyes from the sun - this will suit both glass and plastic lenses. Important, points to be certified: these can be bought in specialized shops and not on the market, of course.
Time to notice the threat "calls" will help self-assessment of visual acuity, using the Amsler grid. In General, I wish you all clearly see the possible problems with vision - but only at a distance or from the side.
Big thanks for the useful information!


Questions asked
Svetlana SHIROKOVA.